Norwegian Contractors ANS (NC) var et industriselskap, opprettet i 1970 for å utvikle og bygge betongplattformer for offshorevirksomheten, hovedsakelig under navnet Condeep (Concrete Deepwater Structure). Opprinnelig var NC et arbeidsfellesskap mellom entreprenørfirmaene Ingeniør Thor Furuholmen, Høyer-Ellefsen og Ingeniør F. Selmer ved byggingen av Ekofisktanken. Landets fremste ekspert på skallkonstruksjoner, Dr. techn. Olav Olsen AS på Lysaker, og Norges Geotekniske Institutt (NGI) var også sterkt involvert i utviklingen. De tre entreprenørbedriftene samlet produksjon, utviklingsarbeid og markedsføring og etablerte sitt første kontor i bygget til Norsk Kunnskaps-Institutt (NKI) i Professor Kohts vei 108 på Stabekk i 1975. To år senere ble virksomheten flyttet til Selmers gamle hovedkontor i Oslo.
I 1984 flyttet selskapet inn i eget nybygg i Holtet 45 på Stabekk. NC ble et heleid datterselskap av Aker i 1987. NC leverte flere plattformer, bl.a. de tre Statfjord-plattformene og tre Gullfaks-plattformer. Selskapet opplevde to store ulykker: I Concem-ulykken 1985 omkom 10 personer da en lekter kantret i Gandsfjorden. Ingen menneskeliv gikk tapt i den andre ulykken, men Sleipner A-plattformen forårsaket det dyreste havariet i norsk offshorehistorie, da betongunderstellet sank under en test i Gandsfjorden 1991. Samme år inngikk NC norgeshistoriens den gang største industrikontrakt med Shell for bygging av betongdelen til Troll A-plattformen. Den ble installert i 1995 og er verdens høyeste offshorekonstruksjon med 369 meter.
Markedet endret seg kraftig i 1990-årene, da det ble økende interesse for flytende løsninger, enklere og billigere konsepter. I 1995 ble virksomheten i NC avviklet og overført til det nye selskapet Aker NC. Ressursene ble spredt, men en aktiv kjerne ble beholdt i Aker Kværner Engineering and Technology AS og Aker Marine Contractors AS på Fornebu, nå Aker Solutions ASA.
Denne artikkelen mangler kildehenvisninger, og opplysningene i den kan dermed være vanskelige å verifisere. Kildeløst materiale kan bli fjernet. Helt uten kilder. (10. okt. 2015)
Norwegian Contractors var et Stavanger-basert selskap med hovedkontor i Bærum som bygget Condeep-plattformer for oljeindustrien.
Norwegian Contractors utviklet konseptet med Condeep-plattformer fra 1973. Condeep-understellet til de tre Gullfaks-plattformene ble støpt av Norwegian Contractors i Jåttåvågen i Gandsfjorden ved Stavanger. Selskapet bygde til sammen 15 Condeep-plattformer fra 1973, med giganten Troll A som kronen på verket i 1995.
Norwegian Contractors solgte lisensrettighetene for sin egen konstruksjon Condeep til firmaer i en rekke land. De inngikk også samarbeid med en gruppe vesttyske firmaer om felles engasjement på verdensbasis.
Selskapet ble etterhvert en del av Aker-gruppen som i 2011 solgte til EMAS, og fikk da navnet EMAS AMC. Firmaet ble overtatt av GMC-Gruppen 28. Des 2012, og har nå navnet GMC Hinna Base AS.
Definition - What does Shallow Gas mean?
Shallow Gas is natural gas which has accumulated at a very shallow depth from the earth's surface. Shallow gas cannot be controlled while drilling, it can only be diverted from the wellbore; therefore, drilling engineers have to be careful not to encounter a shallow gas accumulation area. Also the timing of the crew’s reaction to act is very low due to its shallow depth, and at times before diversion equipment is activated, the gas flows to the surface and the rig floor leading to a potentially risky situation.
Petropedia explains Shallow Gas
In usual conditions when there are no drilling activities taking place in an oil well, shallow gas bearing zones are normally pressurized. When drilling is ongoing, the pore pressure of the rocks increases due to the change in the gas gradient and this in turn leads to un-equilibrium when the drill bits hit the shallow gas bearing zones.
During the preparation of the well drilling plan and site survey procedures, it is advisable to first identify and avoid the shallow gas bearing zones as they can be risky to the drilling team and rig infrastructure. When the drilling team encounters a shallow gas zone they quickly move to divert the gas from the wellbore with the help of diversion equipment.
Localities of the Proterozoic:
Bitter Springs Formation, Australia
Dating to more than 850 million years old in central Australia, the Bitter Springs Formation contains chert beds which have yielded some of our best and most diverse Proterozoic fossils. These include thirty species of microfossil, with more than a dozen cyanobacteria, a couple of chlorophycean algae, and an assortment of possible fungi, dinoflagellates, and heterotrophic bacteria.
Bitter Springs strata are exposed at the northeastern end of the Amadeus Basin (shown in red in the map above), in central Australia. The formation is composed largely of dark limestone and dolomite, and contains black chalcedonic chert in fine laminated layers, a piece of which is displayed near the bottom of this page. The formation has yielded numerous fossils of stromatolites in addition to microfossils. https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/origin5.gif https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/origin7.gif
Søsætning af Skjoldungen
Man skal bare drømme stort nok - så kan man komme til Grønland og sejle et vikingeskib! - en sætning der kræver sin forklaring: I sommeren 2016 vil en besætning på 8 personer med vikingeskibet Skjoldungen sejle strækningen fra de sydligste Grønland og op til Nuuk, i det område hvor vikingerne havde deres primære bosættelser. Projektet er kommet i stand gennem lige dele ildsjæl, eventyrlyst og stædighed. Normalt søsættes alle Vikingeskibsmuseet både samme dag, men Skjoldungen havde fået lov til at forcere med adskillige uger så sejladstræningen kunne komme i gang inden båden skal på den lange transport til Grønland.
NGI - Norges Geotekniske Institutt
Den 29. april 1978 ble store deler av bygda Rissa tatt av et kvikkleirskred. En person døde, mens 15 gårdsbruk, to boligeiendommer, en hytte og et grendahus forsvant i leirmassene.
Fem til seks millioner kubikkmeter leire raste ut fra et område på 330 dekar, og etterlot en skredkant på 1,5 kilometer. Skredet forårsaket også store materielle skader på tettstedet Leira på motsatt side av innsjøen Botnen, da en tre meter høy flodbølge slo inn over land kort tid etter hovedskredet.
Rissa-skredet ble festet til film av to smalfilmamatører, og brukes fortsatt aktivt i skredforebyggende arbeid og i undervisning.
Alle rettigheter tilhører NGI. Hele eller deler av materialet på denne filmen kan verken kopieres eller endres på noen måte. Alle former for kommersielle rettigheter er forbeholdt NGI.
Fishing is an ancient practice dating back to at least the Upper Paleolithic Age about 40,000 years ago. Fishing scenes are presented in Ancient Greek art, dating back to the 5th century B.C. Historian and biographer Plutarch refers to texts for fishermen as well as the famous ancient writer Homer, who reported fish as being an excellent food in the Iliad and Odyssey.
The complex offshore industry is continually changing and adapting in order to meet the needs of the commercial marketplace.
As a result of the digital era, where the technology revolution has been extensive, we have put together a useful post detailing how technologies can produce a highly technical and sophisticated offshore industry which is more efficient, greener, safer, and better prepared for the future.
1.Safe Navigation at Sea
With a vast oceanic area in which many marine creatures coexist, the potential for accidents, and variations in those accidents are numerous. So, when it comes to shipping safety, Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) has contributed significantly to navigation safety.
What is AIS?
AIS is a prime shipping safety technology that acts like a radar showing you other nearby ships’ movements that may be hidden from visual sight, behind obstacles or land formations. This technology is particularly useful for avoiding collisions when crossing traffic lanes in congested shipping areas and when visibility is poor.
Related: 7 things you should know about AIS
Over half a million vessels use AIS to transmit their location
By combining data from satellite and land-based receivers, a worldwide network can be created that collects, shares and interprets the information broadcast by each ship, allowing for predictive analytics and vessel traffic, helping to improve safety at sea.
Fig.1. MarineTraffic Live Map
MarineTraffic operates 3,500 AIS stations that cover 165 countries and record at least 800 million vessel positions. The MarineTraffic Product team is continuously updating its tools in order to provide top-notch services to over six million users. Amongst others, such services include viewing the route forecast of a vessel along with the weather forecast, monitoring vessels as they transit through ‘’Piracy Zones’’ and visualising a vessel’s past track.
2. Investigate Shipping Accidents
Shipping accidents occur regularly. After an accident has occurred, historic AIS data can provide positional and navigational information for the vessels involved, as well as for those nearby, such as if the area was busy or quiet. This information can then be used to cross-check and either dispute or support witness statements. To date, AIS data has been used in numerous legal cases, investigations, and negotiations.
‘’Go Green’’ is the trend for any industry. The offshore industry is no exception.
As IMO 2020 (Sulphur Cap Regulation) is approaching, ship operators and owners must plan ahead on how to cut their sulphur oxide emissions to 0.5% from 1 January 2020. The aim of this action is to substantially reduce air pollutants from ships.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been taking bold action to clean up shipping emission by reducing the sulphur content in ships’ fuel oil to 0.5%m/m from 3.5%m/m
There are currently numerous technologies on the market helping to embrace a greener shipping industry. One example of this technology is the new generation of slow speed two-stroke engines designed to improve vessel performance, generating fewer emissions. Another technology is Flettner Rotor that helps to reduce energy consumption.
As the global ship tracking intelligence company, MarineTraffic is a founding member of the IMO and has been leading the industry towards a more eco-friendly future. They take sustainability in shipping to the next level by optimising ship voyages from berth to berth, rather than the standard routing services, resulting in much lower fuel consumption and emissions.
Related: If you haven’t seen Voyage Planner yet, check out this handy feature here and see how you can visualise your voyage
By obtaining AIS data from MarineTraffic, operators and owners can generate more ideas to help plan for greener shipping. Take the average speed of vessels as an example; an irregular speed causes higher fuel consumption and emissions, acting as an important signal for ship owners to take action like inspecting the vessel or replacing old parts. AIS technology can also contribute to a greener port by optimising electricity and lighting use in the berthing areas.
Read more: How to achieve a reduction of 23% in vessel emissions?
4. Maritime Safety Planning along with Weather Forecast
According to the Hamburg headquartered International Union of Marine Underwriters (IUMI), “around 50% of the world’s total losses are caused by bad weather’’
Technology can make a real difference in this. AIS goes beyond monitoring a vessel’s information such as speed, position and destination. Application Specific Messages (ASM) can also be added to the AIS message, making AIS a valuable platform for exchanging critical shipping information such as weather, current levels and waves.
AIS technology allows vessels to receive proper warnings, allowing them to avoid hazardous seas and major storm events. On MarineTraffic platform, by enabling the route forecast of a vessel with enabled weather maps, you can visualise the vessel’s future position along with the weather forecast during every stage of her voyage.
5.Make Better Predictions
Over 22% of commercial vessels are arriving at their destination a day later than planned
Not able to get an accurate ETA is a very common issue among professionals in the offshore industry. It goes without saying that the more accurate an ETA is, the better it is. Improved accuracy of data helps customers and businesses make more informed decisions, have smarter preparation and improved operations.
As the world’s largest and most extensive coastal network of AIS receivers, MarineTraffic combines satellite AIS data with high-resolution data from MarineTraffic coastal stations, providing the most comprehensive coverage of the global shipping fleet. It also enables you to have access to more precise data including ETA.
Compared to traditional reported ETA, MarineTraffic calculates, or specifically recalculates ETA using regular updates on vessels based on AIS data, past voyages and shipping lanes during a dynamic process. A more reliable arrival time can be provided from MarineTraffic whereas a reported ETA hinges human errors and is not updated frequently.
MarineTraffic also gets involved closely with how a ship interacts with a terminal in order to improve dock occupancy and create tighter time windows for delivery of services, aiming to positively impact stakeholders and society in many areas.
Related: Download the guide to calculated ETA
6.Improve Ship Design
Virtual Reality (VR) is already playing a growing role in providing designers with the opportunity to experiment and try different internal layouts for ships and also to test other aspects such as people movement for passenger ships and fire evacuation procedures.
3D models of ships can be converted into VR allowing designers to ‘walk through’ the structure and to better understand how all of the different elements of the design will work together.
With a powerful database combining the past, present and future into one place, MarineTraffic is committed to creating a more transparent and efficient shipping industry, while also encouraging users to evolve their marine projects.
Sejlform og skibstype - tradition og fornyelse
2016, Vikingetidens sejl. Festskrift tilegnet Erik Andersen (red. af M. Ravn, L.G. Thomsen, E.A. Strand & H. Lyngstrøm)
Viking Age Archaeology,
Viking Age Scandinavia,
Due to the lack of tangible evidence, the exact shape of the sail in the Viking Age has traditionally been a matter of discussion. Two different points of view have characterised this research field: 1) The sail should be reconstructed on the background of Viking Age ship iconography; 2) The reconstruction of sails should mainly be based on parallels from the 19th century traditional fishing vessels from Norway. This paper suggests that central elements in both of these views are too dogmatic and thus contra productive. If advances should be made within this field, it is crucial that two key issues are reconsidered: 1) The Viking Age ship renderings are not technical and measurable drawings, but are based on a fundamental realism, not to be gainsaid; 2) Not all types of Viking Age vessels were constructed to tack against the wind, and it is therefore important to distinguish between vessel types and the traditions they embody. This paper concludes that a stronger connection between contextual archaeology and ship reconstruction - between society and ship - is needed.
The Tune ship was found in 1867, but what it looked like and how it was used for has long been a mystery. 150 years after the discovery of the ship, archaeologist and researcher Knut Paasche has created a digital reconstruction of the ship that has revealed many of its mysteries.
-There are only three Viking ships in Norway that are well-preserved from burial finds: The Gokstad, Oseberg and Tune ships. Therefore, this ship is a unique source for understanding Norse society, says archaeologist and researcher Knut Paasche.
> The Tune ship was found in 1867, but what it looked like and how it was used for has long been a mystery. 150 years after the discovery of the ship, archaeologist and researcher Knut Paasche has created a digital reconstruction of the ship that has revealed many of its mysteries.
> -There are only three Viking ships in Norway that are well-preserved from burial finds: The Gokstad, Oseberg and Tune ships. Therefore, this ship is a unique source for understanding Norse society, says archaeologist and researcher Knut Paasche.
> The Tune Ship Reconstructed
> 130 views
> ?30 Apr 2020
> NIKU Norway
> 117 subscribers